Psychogeography, Nostalgia and Heroic Metamorphosis in Leila Aboulela’s Bird Summons




Aboulela, bird summons, derive, heroic metamorphosis, nostalgia, psychogeography


 Literary psychogeography is one of the concepts that deals with the impact of certain geographical places on the human psyche. It is an interdisciplinary approach that connects psychology, geography, and literature. The aim of this research paper is to examine the theory of literary psychogeography on Leila Aboulela’s fifth novel, Bird Summons (2019) within the theoretical framework of Catherina Loffler. It deals with three female heroines who have decided to go on a road trip to the Scottish Highlands to visit the grave of Lady Evelyn Cobbold. Aboulela explores the three women’s struggle with their personal choices and commitments in life. She skilfully deals with their psychologies, their lost dreams, nostalgia, and their heroic metamorphosis. The women’s psychogeographical voyages at the forest along with their nostalgia lead to their physical metamorphosis to experience heroic transformation of their souls to achieve self-actualization in life.

Author Biography

Iman El Sayed Raslan, aculty of Arts, Helwan University, Egypt

 Associate Professor of English Literature

Department of English Language & Literature

Faculty of Arts, Helwan University, Egypt





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Date of Publication

2023-10-05 — Updated on 2024-01-02

How to Cite

El Sayed Raslan, I. (2024). Psychogeography, Nostalgia and Heroic Metamorphosis in Leila Aboulela’s Bird Summons. International Journal of Arabic-English Studies, 24(1), 365–382.



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